Interaction Theories

Core interaction theories

  • Moore, M. (1989). Editorial: Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education (AJDE), 3(2), 1-7. – Original article that systematizes interaction using the three concepts of instructor-student-content.
  • Anderson, T. D., & Garrison, R. D. (1998). Learning in a networked world: New roles and responsibilities. In C. C. Gibson (Ed.), Distance Learners in Higher Education (pp. 97-112). Madison, Wisconsin: Atwood Publishing. – The first manuscript that referred to the fourth interaction dimension of teacher-teacher, teacher-content, and content-content, called Modes of Interaction.
  • Anderson, T., & Kuskis, A. (2007). Modes of Interaction in Distance Education. In M. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of Distance Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Definitions of Interaction: Interaction has been defined by many scholars from many disciplines. In our work we tend to use the definition developed by Wagner (1984). Note that interactions between among both human and non human agents are accepted.

“reciprocal events that require at least two objects and two actions. Interactions occur when these two objects and events mutually influence each other.”(Wagner, 1994, p.8)

  • Burnham, B., & Walden, B. (1997). Interactions in distance education: A report from the other side. In Proceedings of the Adult Education Research Conference, Oklahoma State University. – Maybe the first that adds the issue of environment to instructor-student-content and interface.
  • Holden, J. T., & Westfall, P. J.-L. (2006). Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning. Distance Learning, 3(2), 1-11. – Asynchronous, synchronous, blended DE; asymmetry vs. symmetry interaction.
  • Stuggs, S. T., & Burnham, B. R. (1990). An instrument for evaluating the potential effectiveness of electronic distance education systems. American Journal of Distance Education, 4(3), 25-37. – Maybe the first to add the issue of device or interface to instructor-student-content axes.
  • Wagner, E. D. (1994). In Support of a Functional Definition of Interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 6-26. – The interaction definition Terry’s theorem is based.
  • Wanstreet, C. E. (2006). Interaction in Online Learning Environments. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7(4), 399-411. – A meta-analysis of online interaction elements review.